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Douglas said that Lincoln was defying the authority of the U. Supreme Court and the Dred Scott decision.

Though the Republican legislative candidates won more popular votes, the Democrats won more seats, and the legislature re-elected Douglas to the Senate.

Despite the bitterness of the defeat for Lincoln, his articulation of the issues gave him a national political reputation. Seward , Salmon P.

Chase , Edward Bates , and Simon Cameron looming as rivals for the nomination. While Lincoln was popular in the Midwest, he lacked support in the Northeast, and was unsure as to whether he should seek the presidency.

Lincoln argued that the Founding Fathers had little use for popular sovereignty and had repeatedly sought to restrict slavery.

Lincoln insisted the moral foundation of the Republicans required opposition to slavery, and rejected any "groping for some middle ground between the right and the wrong".

Journalist Noah Brooks reported, "No man ever before made such an impression on his first appeal to a New York audience.

On the third ballot Pennsylvania put him over the top. Pennsylvania iron interests were reassured by his support for protective tariffs.

Most Republicans agreed with Lincoln that the North was the aggrieved party, as the Slave Power tightened its grasp on the national government with the Dred Scott decision and the presidency of James Buchanan.

Throughout the s, Lincoln doubted the prospects of civil war, and his supporters rejected claims that his election would incite secession.

Breckinridge as their candidate. Lincoln and Douglas would compete for votes in the North, while Bell and Breckinridge primarily found support in the South.

Lincoln had a highly effective campaign team who carefully projected his image as an ideal candidate. As Michael Martinez says:. Lincoln and his political advisers manipulated his image and background Sometimes he appeared as a straight-shooting, plain-talking, common-sense-wielding man of the people.

His image as the "Rail Splitter" dates from this era. His supporters also portrayed him as "Honest Abe," the country fellow who was simply dressed and not especially polished or formal in his manner but who was as honest and trustworthy as his legs were long.

At other times, Lincoln appeared as a sophisticated, thoughtful, articulate, "presidential" candidate. Prior to the Republican convention, the Lincoln campaign began cultivating a nationwide youth organization, the Wide Awakes , which it used to generate popular support for Lincoln throughout the country to spearhead large voter registration drives, knowing that new voters and young voters tend to embrace new and young parties.

People of the Northern states knew the Southern states would vote against Lincoln because of his ideas of anti-slavery and took action to rally supporters for Lincoln.

As Douglas and the other candidates went through with their campaigns, Lincoln was the only one of them who gave no speeches.

Instead, he monitored the campaign closely and relied on the enthusiasm of the Republican Party. The party did the leg work that produced majorities across the North, and produced an abundance of campaign posters, leaflets, and newspaper editorials.

The goal was to demonstrate the superior power of "free labor", whereby a common farm boy could work his way to the top by his own efforts.

He was the first president from the Republican Party. His victory was entirely due to the strength of his support in the North and West; no ballots were cast for him in 10 of the 15 Southern slave states, and he won only two of counties in all the Southern states.

Lincoln received 1,, votes, Douglas 1,, votes, Breckinridge , votes, and Bell , votes. Douglas won Missouri, and split New Jersey with Lincoln.

Although Lincoln won only a plurality of the popular vote, his victory in the electoral college was decisive: Lincoln had and his opponents added together had only There were attempts at compromise.

Lincoln, however, did tacitly support the proposed Corwin Amendment to the Constitution, which passed Congress before Lincoln came into office and was then awaiting ratification by the states.

That proposed amendment would have protected slavery in states where it already existed and would have guaranteed that Congress would not interfere with slavery without Southern consent.

En route to his inauguration by train, Lincoln addressed crowds and legislatures across the North. On February 23, , he arrived in disguise in Washington, D.

Apprehension seems to exist among the people of the Southern States that by the accession of a Republican Administration their property and their peace and personal security are to be endangered.

There has never been any reasonable cause for such apprehension. Indeed, the most ample evidence to the contrary has all the while existed and been open to their inspection.

It is found in nearly all the published speeches of him who now addresses you. I do but quote from one of those speeches when I declare that "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists.

I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. The President ended his address with an appeal to the people of the South: We must not be enemies The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield, and patriot grave, to every living heart and hearthstone, all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.

By March , no leaders of the insurrection had proposed rejoining the Union on any terms. Meanwhile, Lincoln and the Republican leadership agreed that the dismantling of the Union could not be tolerated.

Both parties deprecated war, but one of them would make war rather than let the Nation survive, and the other would accept war rather than let it perish, and the war came.

On April 12, , Confederate forces fired on Union troops at Fort Sumter , forcing them to surrender, beginning the war. Historian Allan Nevins argued that the newly inaugurated Lincoln made three miscalculations: William Tecumseh Sherman talked to Lincoln during inauguration week and was "sadly disappointed" at his failure to realize that "the country was sleeping on a volcano" and that the South was preparing for war.

Sumter showed he adhered to his vow not to be the first to shed fraternal blood. But he also vowed not to surrender the forts. The only resolution of these contradictory positions was for the confederates to fire the first shot; they did just that.

On April 15, Lincoln called on all the states to send detachments totaling 75, troops to recapture forts, protect Washington, and "preserve the Union", which, in his view, still existed intact despite the actions of the seceding states.

This call forced the states to choose sides. Virginia declared its secession and was rewarded with the Confederate capital, despite the exposed position of Richmond so close to Union lines.

North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas also voted for secession over the next two months. Secession sentiment was strong in Missouri and Maryland, but did not prevail; Kentucky tried to be neutral.

Historian Allan Nevins says: The thunderclap of Sumter produced a startling crystallization of Northern sentiment Anger swept the land. From every side came news of mass meetings, speeches, resolutions, tenders of business support, the muster of companies and regiments, the determined action of governors and legislatures.

The Army responded by arresting local Maryland officials. Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus in areas the army felt it needed to secure for troops to reach Washington.

Taney , author of the controversial pro-slavery Dred Scott opinion, to issue a writ of habeas corpus , and in June Taney, acting as a circuit judge and not speaking for the Supreme Court, issued the writ, because in his opinion only Congress could suspend the writ.

Lincoln continued the army policy that the writ was suspended in limited areas despite the Ex parte Merryman ruling. Before the Civil War, the only money issued by the United States was gold and silver coins, and only such coins "specie" were legal tender ; that is, payment in that form had to be accepted.

Paper currency in the form of banknotes was issued by privately owned banks. Greenbacks were paper currency printed in green on the back issued by the United States during the American Civil War , they were in two forms:.

They bore no interest, but could be redeemed for specie "on demand". They were not legal tender before March , but like Treasury Notes could be used to pay customs duties.

Unlike private and state banknotes, Demand Notes were printed on both sides. The reverse side was printed in green ink, and so the Demand Notes were dubbed "greenbacks".

Initially they were discounted relative to gold, but being fully redeemable in gold were soon at par. In December , the government had to suspend redemption, and they declined.

Chase authorized paying interest on Demand Notes, which sustained their value. Importers therefore continued to use Demand Notes in place of gold.

In March , Demand Notes were made legal tender. As Demand Notes were used to pay duties, they were taken out of circulation.

The other form of greenbacks where the United States Notes issued in — They were legal tender by law, but were not backed by gold or silver , only the credibility of the U.

After the Battle of Fort Sumter , Lincoln realized the importance of taking immediate executive control of the war and forming an overall Union military strategy to put down the rebellion.

Lincoln encountered an unprecedented political and military crisis, and he responded as commander-in-chief , using unprecedented powers.

He expanded his war powers, and imposed a blockade on all the Confederate shipping ports, disbursed funds before appropriation by Congress, and after suspending habeas corpus , arrested and imprisoned thousands of suspected Confederate sympathizers.

Lincoln was supported by Congress and the northern public for these actions. In addition, Lincoln had to contend with reinforcing strong Union sympathies in the border slave states and keeping the war from becoming an international conflict.

The war effort was the source of continued disparagement of Lincoln, and dominated his time and attention. From the start, it was clear that bipartisan support would be essential to success in the war effort, and any manner of compromise alienated factions on both sides of the aisle, such as the appointment of Republicans and Democrats to command positions in the Union Army.

Copperheads criticized Lincoln for refusing to compromise on the slavery issue. Conversely, the Radical Republicans criticized him for moving too slowly in abolishing slavery.

In practice, the law had little effect, but it did signal political support for abolishing slavery in the Confederacy. In late August , General John C.

He declared that any citizen found bearing arms could be court-martialed and shot, and that slaves of persons aiding the rebellion would be freed. Navy had illegally intercepted a British mail ship, the Trent , on the high seas and seized two Confederate envoys; Britain protested vehemently while the U.

Lincoln ended the crisis by releasing the two diplomats. Lincoln painstakingly monitored the telegraphic reports coming into the War Department headquarters.

He kept close tabs on all phases of the military effort, consulted with governors, and selected generals based on their past success as well as their state and party.

Nevertheless, he worked more often and more closely with Lincoln than any other senior official. In terms of war strategy, Lincoln articulated two priorities: McClellan general-in-chief of all the Union armies.

However, lacking requested reinforcements from McClellan, now commanding the Army of the Potomac, Pope was soundly defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run in the summer of , forcing the Army of the Potomac to defend Washington for a second time.

Lincoln closely reviewed the dispatches and interrogated naval officers during their clash in the Battle of Hampton Roads.

Having composed the Proclamation some time earlier, Lincoln had waited for a military victory to publish it to avoid it being perceived as the product of desperation.

Both of these replacements were political moderates and prospectively more supportive of the Commander-in-Chief. Burnside, against the advice of the president, prematurely launched an offensive across the Rappahannock River and was stunningly defeated by Lee at Fredericksburg in December.

Not only had Burnside been defeated on the battlefield, but his soldiers were disgruntled and undisciplined.

Desertions during were in the thousands and they increased after Fredericksburg. The mid-term elections in brought the Republicans severe losses due to sharp disfavor with the administration over its failure to deliver a speedy end to the war, as well as rising inflation, new high taxes, rumors of corruption, the suspension of habeas corpus , the military draft law , and fears that freed slaves would undermine the labor market.

The Emancipation Proclamation announced in September gained votes for the Republicans in the rural areas of New England and the upper Midwest, but it lost votes in the cities and the lower Midwest.

The Republicans did maintain their majorities in Congress and in the major states, except New York. The Cincinnati Gazette contended that the voters were "depressed by the interminable nature of this war, as so far conducted, and by the rapid exhaustion of the national resources without progress".

In the spring of , Lincoln was optimistic about upcoming military campaigns to the point of thinking the end of the war could be near if a string of victories could be put together; these plans included attacks by Hooker on Lee north of Richmond, Rosecrans on Chattanooga, Grant on Vicksburg, and a naval assault on Charleston.

Hooker was routed by Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May, [] but continued to command his troops for some weeks.

At the same time, after initial setbacks, Grant laid siege to Vicksburg and the Union navy attained some success in Charleston harbor. Even so, he often continued to give detailed directions to his generals as Commander-in-Chief.

He argued before and during his election that the eventual extinction of slavery would result from preventing its expansion into new U.

At the beginning of the war, he also sought to persuade the states to accept compensated emancipation in return for their prohibition of slavery.

Lincoln believed that curtailing slavery in these ways would economically expunge it, as envisioned by the Founding Fathers , under the constitution.

On June 19, , endorsed by Lincoln, Congress passed an act banning slavery on all federal territory. In July, the Confiscation Act of was passed, which set up court procedures that could free the slaves of anyone convicted of aiding the rebellion.

He felt such action could only be taken by the Commander-in-Chief using war powers granted to the president by the Constitution, and Lincoln was planning to take that action.

In that month, Lincoln discussed a draft of the Emancipation Proclamation with his cabinet. In it, he stated that "as a fit and necessary military measure, on January 1, , all persons held as slaves in the Confederate states will thenceforward, and forever, be free".

Privately, Lincoln concluded at this point that the slave base of the Confederacy had to be eliminated. However, Copperheads argued that emancipation was a stumbling block to peace and reunification.

Republican editor Horace Greeley of the highly influential New York Tribune fell for the ploy, [] and Lincoln refuted it directly in a shrewd letter of August 22, Although he said he personally wished all men could be free, Lincoln stated that the primary goal of his actions as the U.

My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that.

What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union The Emancipation Proclamation, issued on September 22, , and put into effect on January 1, , declared free the slaves in 10 states not then under Union control, with exemptions specified for areas already under Union control in two states.

Once the abolition of slavery in the rebel states became a military objective, as Union armies advanced south, more slaves were liberated until all three million of them in Confederate territory were freed.

He commented favorably on colonization in the Emancipation Proclamation, but all attempts at such a massive undertaking failed.

McClellan as commander of the Union Army. Enlisting former slaves in the military was official government policy after the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation.

By the spring of , Lincoln was ready to recruit black troops in more than token numbers. In a letter to Andrew Johnson , the military governor of Tennessee, encouraging him to lead the way in raising black troops, Lincoln wrote, "The bare sight of 50, armed and drilled black soldiers on the banks of the Mississippi would end the rebellion at once".

With the great Union victory at the Battle of Gettysburg in July , and the defeat of the Copperheads in the Ohio election in the fall, Lincoln maintained a strong base of party support and was in a strong position to redefine the war effort, despite the New York City draft riots.

The stage was set for his address at the Gettysburg battlefield cemetery on November 19, In words, and three minutes, Lincoln asserted the nation was born not in , but in , "conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal".

He defined the war as an effort dedicated to these principles of liberty and equality for all. The emancipation of slaves was now part of the national war effort.

He declared that the deaths of so many brave soldiers would not be in vain, that slavery would end as a result of the losses, and the future of democracy in the world would be assured, that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth".

Lincoln concluded that the Civil War had a profound objective: Nevertheless, Lincoln was concerned that Grant might be considering a candidacy for President in , as McClellan was.

Grant waged his bloody Overland Campaign in This is often characterized as a war of attrition , given high Union losses at battles such as the Battle of the Wilderness and Cold Harbor.

Even though they had the advantage of fighting on the defensive, the Confederate forces had "almost as high a percentage of casualties as the Union forces".

This allowed the president to confer in person with Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman about the hostilities, as Sherman coincidentally managed a hasty visit to Grant from his position in North Carolina.

Confederate general Jubal Early began a series of assaults in the North that threatened the Capital. Lincoln refused to allow any negotiation with the Confederacy as a coequal; his sole objective was an agreement to end the fighting and the meetings produced no results.

Days later, when that city fell, Lincoln visited the vanquished Confederate capital; as he walked through the city, white Southerners were stone-faced, but freedmen greeted him as a hero.

On April 9, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox and the war was effectively over. While the war was still being waged, Lincoln faced reelection in Lincoln was a master politician, bringing together—and holding together—all the main factions of the Republican Party, and bringing in War Democrats such as Edwin M.

Stanton and Andrew Johnson as well. Lincoln spent many hours a week talking to politicians from across the land and using his patronage powers—greatly expanded over peacetime—to hold the factions of his party together, build support for his own policies, and fend off efforts by Radicals to drop him from the ticket.

To broaden his coalition to include War Democrats as well as Republicans, Lincoln ran under the label of the new Union Party.

Sharing this fear, Lincoln wrote and signed a pledge that, if he should lose the election, he would still defeat the Confederacy before turning over the White House: This morning, as for some days past, it seems exceedingly probable that this Administration will not be re-elected.

Then it will be my duty to so co-operate with the President elect, as to save the Union between the election and the inauguration; as he will have secured his election on such ground that he cannot possibly save it afterward.

While the Democratic platform followed the "Peace wing" of the party and called the war a "failure", their candidate, General George B.

McClellan, supported the war and repudiated the platform. Lincoln provided Grant with more troops and mobilized his party to renew its support of Grant in the war effort.

By contrast, the National Union Party was united and energized as Lincoln made emancipation the central issue, and state Republican parties stressed the perfidy of the Copperheads.

On March 4, , Lincoln delivered his second inaugural address. Historian Mark Noll concludes it ranks "among the small handful of semi-sacred texts by which Americans conceive their place in the world".

Fondly do we hope—fervently do we pray—that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Reconstruction began during the war, as Lincoln and his associates anticipated questions of how to reintegrate the conquered southern states, and how to determine the fates of Confederate leaders and freed slaves.

Thaddeus Stevens , Sen. Charles Sumner and Sen. Benjamin Wade , political allies of the president on other issues. Determined to find a course that would reunite the nation and not alienate the South, Lincoln urged that speedy elections under generous terms be held throughout the war.

His Amnesty Proclamation of December 8, , offered pardons to those who had not held a Confederate civil office, had not mistreated Union prisoners, and would sign an oath of allegiance.

As Southern states were subdued, critical decisions had to be made as to their leadership while their administrations were re-formed.

Of special importance were Tennessee and Arkansas, where Lincoln appointed Generals Andrew Johnson and Frederick Steele as military governors, respectively.

Banks to promote a plan that would restore statehood when 10 percent of the voters agreed to it. On the other hand, the Radicals denounced his policy as too lenient, and passed their own plan, the Wade-Davis Bill , in When Lincoln vetoed the bill, the Radicals retaliated by refusing to seat representatives elected from Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee.

Chase, who Lincoln believed would uphold the emancipation and paper money policies. After implementing the Emancipation Proclamation, which did not apply to every state, Lincoln increased pressure on Congress to outlaw slavery throughout the entire nation with a constitutional amendment.

Lincoln declared that such an amendment would "clinch the whole matter". This first attempt at an amendment failed to pass, falling short of the required two-thirds majority on June 15, , in the House of Representatives.

After a long debate in the House, a second attempt passed Congress on January 31, , and was sent to the state legislatures for ratification.

The law assigned land for a lease of three years with the ability to purchase title for the freedmen. Lincoln stated that his Louisiana plan did not apply to all states under Reconstruction.

Shortly before his assassination, Lincoln announced he had a new plan for southern Reconstruction. Discussions with his cabinet revealed Lincoln planned short-term military control over southern states, until readmission under the control of southern Unionists.

Historians agree that it is impossible to predict exactly what Lincoln would have done about Reconstruction if he had lived, but they make projections based on his known policy positions and political acumen.

Lincoln biographers James G. Randall and Richard Current , according to David Lincove, argue that: Eric Foner argues that: Unlike Sumner and other Radicals, Lincoln did not see Reconstruction as an opportunity for a sweeping political and social revolution beyond emancipation.

He had long made clear his opposition to the confiscation and redistribution of land. He believed, as most Republicans did in April , that the voting requirements should be determined by the states.

He assumed that political control in the South would pass to white Unionists, reluctant secessionists, and forward-looking former Confederates. But time and again during the war, Lincoln, after initial opposition, had come to embrace positions first advanced by abolitionists and Radical Republicans.

Lincoln undoubtedly would have listened carefully to the outcry for further protection for the former slaves It is entirely plausible to imagine Lincoln and Congress agreeing on a Reconstruction policy that encompassed federal protection for basic civil rights plus limited black suffrage, along the lines Lincoln proposed just before his death.

The successful reunification of the states had consequences for the name of the country. The term "the United States" has historically been used, sometimes in the plural "these United States" , and other times in the singular, without any particular grammatical consistency.

The Civil War was a significant force in the eventual dominance of the singular usage by the end of the 19th century.

As early as the s, a time when most political rhetoric focused on the sanctity of the Constitution, Lincoln redirected emphasis to the Declaration of Independence as the foundation of American political values—what he called the "sheet anchor" of republicanism.

As Diggins concludes regarding the highly influential Cooper Union speech of early , "Lincoln presented Americans a theory of history that offers a profound contribution to the theory and destiny of republicanism itself.

He denounced secession as anarchy, and explained that majority rule had to be balanced by constitutional restraints in the American system.

He said "A majority held in restraint by constitutional checks and limitations, and always changing easily with deliberate changes of popular opinions and sentiments, is the only true sovereign of a free people.

Lincoln adhered to the Whig theory of the presidency, which gave Congress primary responsibility for writing the laws while the Executive enforced them.

Lincoln vetoed only four bills passed by Congress; the only important one was the Wade-Davis Bill with its harsh program of Reconstruction.

The Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act , also signed in , provided government grants for agricultural colleges in each state.

Other important legislation involved two measures to raise revenues for the Federal government: In , Lincoln signed the second and third Morrill Tariff , the first having become law under James Buchanan.

Also in , Lincoln signed the Revenue Act of , creating the first U. The creation of the system of national banks by the National Banking Act provided a strong financial network in the country.

It also established a national currency. Presented with execution warrants for convicted Santee Dakota who were accused of killing innocent farmers, Lincoln conducted his own personal review of each of these warrants, eventually approving 39 for execution one was later reprieved.

In response to rumors of one, however, the editors of the New York World and the Journal of Commerce published a false draft proclamation which created an opportunity for the editors and others employed at the publications to corner the gold market.

The seizure lasted for two days. Lincoln is largely responsible for the institution of the Thanksgiving holiday in the United States.

In , Lincoln declared the final Thursday in November of that year to be a day of Thanksgiving. Therefore we must take a man whose opinions are known.

Noah Haynes Swayne , nominated January 21, , and appointed January 24, , was chosen as an anti-slavery lawyer who was committed to the Union.

Samuel Freeman Miller , nominated and appointed on July 16, , supported Lincoln in the election and was an avowed abolitionist.

Stephen Johnson Field , a previous California Supreme Court justice, was nominated March 6, , and appointed March 10, , and provided geographic balance, as well as political balance to the court as a Democrat.

Chase, was nominated as Chief Justice, and appointed the same day, on December 6, Lincoln believed Chase was an able jurist, would support Reconstruction legislation, and that his appointment united the Republican Party.

Lincoln appointed 32 federal judges, including four Associate Justices and one Chief Justice to the Supreme Court of the United States , and 27 judges to the United States district courts.

Lincoln appointed no judges to the United States circuit courts during his time in office. West Virginia , admitted to the Union June 20, , contained the former north-westernmost counties of Virginia that seceded from Virginia after that commonwealth declared its secession from the Union.

Nevada , which became the third State in the far-west of the continent, was admitted as a free state on October 31, The assassination occurred five days after the surrender of Robert E.

Lee and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. Booth was a well-known actor and a Confederate spy from Maryland; though he never joined the Confederate army, he had contacts with the Confederate secret service.

Conrad previously authorized by the Confederacy [] to kidnap Lincoln in exchange for the release of Confederate prisoners.

After attending an April 11, , speech in which Lincoln promoted voting rights for blacks, an incensed Booth changed his plans and became determined to assassinate the president.

At the last minute, Grant decided to go to New Jersey to visit his children instead of attending the play. The now unguarded President sat in his state box in the balcony.

Seizing the opportunity, Booth crept up from behind and at about Major Henry Rathbone momentarily grappled with Booth, but Booth stabbed him and escaped.

Doctor Charles Leale , an Army surgeon, found the President unresponsive, barely breathing and with no detectable pulse. Having determined that the President had been shot in the head, and not stabbed in the shoulder as originally thought, he made an attempt to clear the blood clot, after which the President began to breathe more naturally.

After remaining in a coma for nine hours, Lincoln died at 7: According to eyewitnesses, his face was fixed in a smile when he expired. President Johnson was sworn in at As a young man, Lincoln was a religious skeptic , [] or, in the words of a biographer, an iconoclast.

Lincoln never made a clear profession of Christian beliefs. However, he did believe in an all-powerful God that shaped events and, by , was expressing those beliefs in major speeches.

In the s, Lincoln subscribed to the Doctrine of Necessity , a belief that asserted the human mind was controlled by some higher power.

He wrote at this time that God "could have either saved or destroyed the Union without a human contest. Yet the contest began.

And having begun, He could give the final victory to either side any day. Yet the contest proceeds. These are often based on photographs appearing to show weight loss and muscle wasting.

One such claim is that he suffered from a rare genetic disorder, MEN2b , [] which manifests with a medullary thyroid carcinoma , mucosal neuromas and a Marfanoid appearance.

In surveys of U. Generally, the top three presidents are rated as 1. Lincoln was viewed by abolitionists as a champion for human liberty.

Many, though not all, in the South considered Lincoln as a man of outstanding ability. Guelzo states that Lincoln was a [] [].

Lincoln became a favorite exemplar for liberal intellectuals across Europe and Latin America and even in Asia. By the s Lincoln had become a hero to political conservatives [] for his intense nationalism, support for business, his insistence on stopping the spread of human bondage, his acting in terms of Lockean and Burkean principles on behalf of both liberty and tradition, and his devotion to the principles of the Founding Fathers.

Randall emphasizes his tolerance and especially his moderation "in his preference for orderly progress, his distrust of dangerous agitation, and his reluctance toward ill digested schemes of reform".

Bennett argued that Lincoln opposed social equality, and proposed sending freed slaves to another country. Defenders, such as authors Dirck and Cashin, retorted that he was not as bad as most politicians of his day; [] and that he was a "moral visionary" who deftly advanced the abolitionist cause, as fast as politically possible.

Lincoln has often been portrayed by Hollywood, almost always in a flattering light. His likeness also appears on many postage stamps and he has been memorialized in many town, city, and county names, [] including the capital of Nebraska.

Roosevelt, preparing America for war, used the words of the Civil War president to clarify the threat posed by Germany and Japan. Americans asked, "What would Lincoln do?

He suggested that postmodernism and multiculturalism have diluted greatness as a concept. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the American President.

For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln disambiguation. Early life and career of Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln family and Health of Abraham Lincoln.

Mary Todd Lincoln , wife of Abraham Lincoln, age List of cases involving Abraham Lincoln. Slave and free states and Abraham Lincoln and slavery.

Lincoln—Douglas debates and Cooper Union speech. Electoral history of Abraham Lincoln and United States presidential election, Presidency of Abraham Lincoln.

United States presidential election, and Baltimore Plot. Abraham Lincoln and slavery and Emancipation Proclamation. List of federal judges appointed by Abraham Lincoln.

Abraham Lincoln and religion. Health of Abraham Lincoln. Cultural depictions of Abraham Lincoln. Encyclopedia of the Veteran in America.

Retrieved June 27, Toward a Usable Past: Liberty Under State Constitutions. U of Georgia Press. Archived January 31, , at the Wayback Machine.

International World History Project. Indiana Years, Seven to Twenty-One, — Letters, Interviews, and Statements about Abraham Lincoln.

University of Illinois Press. Archived from the original on January 13, Johns Hopkins University Press.

There I Grew Up: Indiana Historical Society Press. The Ancestry of Abraham Lincoln. The Hanks Family of Virginia and Westward: An Ethical Biography Vintage Books ed.

A New History of Indiana. Lincoln in American Memory. With Malice Toward None: The Life of Abraham Lincoln. Reexamining Rutledge Family Reminiscences".

Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association. The Abraham Lincoln Association. Archived from the original on April 3, Giant in the Shadows: The Life of Robert T.

The Atlantic Monthly Group. Archived from the original on October 20, Retrieved October 8, Archived from the original on February 4, Retrieved February 12, The Rise of Abraham Lincoln.

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The University of North Carolina Press. Provides details of support across the North. Harris, Lincoln and the Border States: Preserving the Union University Press of Kansas, pp.

The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties. Archived from the original on November 22, Jordan averaged a league leading However, despite pushing the series to seven games, the Bulls lost to the Pistons for the third consecutive season.

In the —91 season , Jordan won his second MVP award after averaging The Bulls defeated the New York Knicks and the Philadelphia 76ers in the opening two rounds of the playoffs.

They advanced to the Eastern Conference Finals where their rival, the Detroit Pistons , awaited them. However, this time the Bulls beat the Pistons in a four-game sweep.

The Bulls won the series four games to one, and compiled a 15—2 playoff record along the way. Jordan and the Bulls continued their dominance in the —92 season , establishing a 67—15 record, topping their franchise record from — The media, hoping to recreate a Magic—Bird rivalry , highlighted the similarities between "Air" Jordan and Clyde "The Glide" during the pre-Finals hype.

Jordan was named Finals MVP for the second year in a row [49] and finished the series averaging In the —93 season , despite a He averaged a Finals-record With his third Finals triumph, Jordan capped off a seven-year run where he attained seven scoring titles and three championships, but there were signs that Jordan was tiring of his massive celebrity and all of the non-basketball hassles in his life.

Yeah, it depends on how you look at it. On October 6, , Jordan announced his retirement, citing a loss of desire to play the game.

Jordan later stated that the death of his father three months earlier also shaped his decision. He later adopted it as his own signature, displaying it each time he drove to the basket.

In his autobiography For the Love of the Game , Jordan wrote that he had been preparing for retirement as early as the summer of Jordan then further surprised the sports world by signing a Minor League Baseball contract with the Chicago White Sox on February 7, In the —94 season , the Bulls achieved a 55—27 record without Jordan in the lineup, [34] and lost to the New York Knicks in the second round of the playoffs.

The —95 Bulls were a shell of the championship team of just two years earlier. Struggling at mid-season to ensure a spot in the playoffs, Chicago was 31—31 at one point in mid-March.

In March , Jordan decided to quit baseball due to the ongoing Major League Baseball strike , as he wanted to avoid becoming a potential replacement player.

Although he had not played an NBA game in a year and a half, Jordan played well upon his return, making a game-winning jump shot against Atlanta in his fourth game back.

He then scored 55 points in the next game against the Knicks at Madison Square Garden on March 28, Jordan responded by scoring 38 points in the next game, which Chicago won.

Before the game, Jordan decided that he would immediately resume wearing his former number, Jordan was freshly motivated by the playoff defeat, and he trained aggressively for the —96 season.

In the —97 season , the Bulls started out 69—11, but missed out on a second consecutive win season by losing their final two games to finish 69— He won Game 1 for the Bulls with a buzzer-beating jump shot.

In Game 5, with the series tied at 2, Jordan played despite being feverish and dehydrated from a stomach virus. In what is known as the " Flu Game ", Jordan scored 38 points, including the game-deciding 3-pointer with 25 seconds remaining.

Jordan and the Bulls compiled a 62—20 record in the —98 season. Jordan executed a series of plays, considered to be one of the greatest clutch performances in NBA Finals history.

When play resumed, Jordan received the inbound pass, drove to the basket, and hit a shot over several Jazz defenders, cutting the Utah lead to 86— Malone jostled with Rodman and caught the pass, but Jordan cut behind him and took the ball out of his hands for a steal.

With 10 seconds remaining, Jordan started to dribble right, then crossed over to his left, possibly pushing off Russell, [95] [96] [97] although the officials did not call a foul.

Afterwards, John Stockton missed a game-winning three-pointer. Jordan and the Bulls won their sixth NBA championship and second three-peat.

Game 6 also holds the highest television rating of any game in NBA history. Opinions of Jordan as a basketball executive were mixed. Despite his January claim that he was " Inspired by the NHL comeback of his friend Mario Lemieux the previous winter, [] Jordan spent much of the spring and summer of in training, holding several invitation-only camps for NBA players in Chicago.

On September 25, , Jordan announced his return to the NBA to play for the Washington Wizards, indicating his intention to donate his salary as a player to a relief effort for the victims of the September 11 attacks.

His last seven appearances were in a reserve role, in which he averaged just over 20 minutes per game. In his final game at the United Center in Chicago, which was his old home court, Jordan received a four-minute standing ovation.

In the end, he accepted the spot of Vince Carter , who decided to give it up under great public pressure. After scoring only 13 points in the game, Jordan went to the bench with 4 minutes and 13 seconds remaining in the third quarter and his team trailing the Philadelphia 76ers , 75— Just after the start of the fourth quarter, the First Union Center crowd began chanting "We want Mike!

After the second foul shot, the 76ers in-bounded the ball to rookie John Salmons , who in turn was intentionally fouled by Bobby Simmons one second later, stopping time so that Jordan could return to the bench.

Jordan received a three-minute standing ovation from his teammates, his opponents, the officials, and the crowd of 21, fans. Jordan played on two Olympic gold medal -winning American basketball teams.

He won a gold medal as a college player in the Summer Olympics. Jordan led the team in scoring, averaging Jordan was the only player to start all 8 games in the Olympics.

Playing limited minutes due to the frequent blowouts , Jordan averaged After his third retirement, Jordan assumed that he would be able to return to his front office position as Director of Basketball Operations with the Wizards.

Jordan kept busy over the next few years. He stayed in shape, played golf in celebrity charity tournaments, and spent time with his family in Chicago.

He also promoted his Jordan Brand clothing line and rode motorcycles. As part of the deal, Jordan took full control over the basketball side of the operation, with the title "Managing Member of Basketball Operations.

In February , it was reported that Jordan was seeking majority ownership of the Bobcats. During the —12 NBA season that was shortened to 66 games by the lockout, the Bobcats posted a 7—59 record.

Jordan was a shooting guard who was also capable of playing as a small forward the position he would primarily play during his second return to professional basketball with the Washington Wizards , and as a point guard.

With the Bulls, he decided 25 games with field goals or free throws in the last 30 seconds, including two NBA Finals games and five other playoff contests.

To help improve his defense, he spent extra hours studying film of opponents. On offense, he relied more upon instinct and improvisation at game time.

Jordan had a versatile offensive game. He was capable of aggressively driving to the basket, as well as drawing fouls from his opponents at a high rate; his 8, free throw attempts are the 11th-highest total in NBA history.

According to Hubie Brown , this move alone made him nearly unstoppable. In addition, he set both seasonal and career records for blocked shots by a guard, [] and combined this with his ball-thieving ability to become a standout defensive player.

By , the season of his Finals-winning shot against the Jazz, he was well known throughout the league as a clutch performer.

I think it was the exposure of Michael Jordan; the marketing of Michael Jordan. Everything was marketed towards the things that people wanted to see, which was scoring and dunking.

That Michael Jordan still played defense and an all-around game, but it was never really publicized. During his heyday, Jordan did much to increase the status of the game.

Television ratings increased only during his time in the league. His emotional reaction during his speech—when he began to cry—was captured by Associated Press photographer Stephan Savoia and would later go viral on social media as the Crying Jordan Internet meme.

Jordan and Vanoy filed for divorce on January 4, , citing irreconcilable differences, but reconciled shortly thereafter. They again filed for divorce and were granted a final decree of dissolution of marriage on December 29, , commenting that the decision was made "mutually and amicably".

In , Jordan purchased a lot in Highland Park, Illinois , to build a 56, square-foot 5, m 2 mansion, which was completed four years later.

Jordan listed his Highland Park mansion for sale in After two seasons, Jeffrey left the Illinois basketball team in He later rejoined the team for a third season, [] [] then received a release to transfer to the University of Central Florida , where Marcus was attending.

He began attending UCF in the fall of , [] and played three seasons of basketball for the school. A DNA test showed Jordan was not the father of the child.

Jordan is one of the most marketed sports figures in history. Nike created a signature shoe for him, called the Air Jordan , in Subsequently, Nike spun off the Jordan line into its own division named the "Jordan Brand".

The company features an impressive list of athletes and celebrities as endorsers. Jordan also has been associated with the Looney Tunes cartoon characters.

Forbes designated Jordan as the athlete with the highest career earnings in Jordan co-owns an automotive group which bears his name. The company has a Nissan dealership in Durham, North Carolina , acquired in , [] and formerly had a Lincoln — Mercury dealership from until its closure in June From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other people named Michael Jordan, see Michael Jordan disambiguation. List of career achievements by Michael Jordan.

Retrieved December 12, Catledge leads rally; Jordan scores 49 points", Chicago Tribune , p. Retrieved December 6, Retrieved January 15, Retrieved February 11, Retrieved February 12, Retrieved November 23, Retrieved May 9, Retrieved June 28, Retrieved December 17, Retrieved January 16, Retrieved August 10, Portrait of a Champion".

The Ultimate Career Tribute. Retrieved February 8, The worst draft picks ever , ESPN. Retrieved October 20, Retrieved July 27, Is He the New Dr.

Retrieved March 7, Retrieved March 26, Retrieved June 9, Retrieved April 22, Retrieved January 17, Retrieved July 20, Retrieved May 24, Retrieved April 8, D01, June 7, Retrieved March 24, Retrieved February 6, Retrieved March 5, Retrieved March 9, Retrieved November 10, Retrieved September 1, Retrieved January 20, Retrieved November 14, Retrieved February 9, A Tribute , Sports Illustrated.

The Stats , infoplease. Retrieved March 15, Retrieved March 19, Retrieved September 3, Economic Value and Policy. Retrieved December 16, Retrieved May 8, Chicago Bulls , BBC.

Retrieved March 16, Retrieved June 5, Retrieved May 14, Retrieved November 17, Crying Foul , sportingnews.

History of the NBA Finals: Lakers-Celtics should grab big TV ratings , charleston. Retrieved December 23, Retrieved February 23, Making his move , Sports Illustrated , February 22, Retrieved August 8, Retrieved February 26, Retrieved March 11, Lengthy ovation moves Jordan , Chicago Tribune , January 25, Retrieved October 7, Thanks, but no thanks: Jordan not interested in ceremonial starting role , Sports Illustrated , February 8, Retrieved April 18, By the Numbers , National Basketball Association.

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